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《先进制造信息参考》第50期


2019/4/22 11:46:19

工业4.0与智能制造

类型:咨询报告

标题:A reality check for C-suite leaders on Industry 4.0

参考译名:对工业4.0高管们的实际的检验

简介:Industry 4.0 (i4.0) is a historic paradigm shift that has the remarkable potential to catapult manufacturing into the next generation. But true progress remains limited.Bold digital transformation is being thwarted by familiar roadblocks - including a lack of leadership and strategic direction, confusion, fear of disruption, ROI uncertainties and more.The gap between C-suite ambition and tangible transformation remains real and troubling. Few organizations are achieving transformation at the scale and integration needed for new levels of value to emerge. Instead, 'pain point' technology solutions and siloed piloting programs proliferate. Businesses meander along the Industry 4.0 road with no clear view of the future. Pilot-project overload looms.KPMG's latest report - A reality check for today's C-suite on Industry 4.0 - examines what some firms are doing right and what many others must do better to manage the most-complex business challenge to emerge in generations. CEOs and their organizations need to pursue an informed, strategic, value-based approach to Industry 4.0.Change for the future is not about adopting shiny new technology or impressive shop-floor gadgetry. This is a strategy and operating-model challenge that transcends yesterday's world of simple IT innovations. It's time to exercise leadership today that drives truly historic, unprecedented change for tomorrow.

来源:KPMG

链接:http://pan.ckcest.cn/rcservice//doc?doc_id=37591

 

类型:会议

标题:The Usage of an Intelligent Virtual Sensor as a Form of Approximation to the Final Consumer

参考译名:智能虚拟传感器作为一种接近最终用户的形式的使用

简介:Industry 4.0 is revolutionizing the processes and the products of an organisation. With an increase of incidence on their consumers interests and preferences, organisations are facing the need to understand their needs and preferences, based on the data available online, which can contribute to an improvement of the manufacturing process including the personalisation factor. This work contains a model proposal for an Intelligent Virtual Sensor that is intended to create a knowledge layer for organisations by gathering and processing data regarding their consumers interests and preferences. By looking at industry as a Smart Environment, is possible to enhance the smart manufacturing process by providing data and knowledge gathered from numerous sensors, including the proposed sensor model. With that knowledge layer provided by the proposed sensor, the organisational decision making processes can include the consumers needs and preferences.

来源:出处:《Ambient Intelligence - Software and Applications: 9th International Symposium on Ambient Intelligence》年:2019 349356 

链接:http://pan.ckcest.cn/rcservice//doc?doc_id=37599

 

类型:期刊

标题:Big data analytics architecture design-An application in manufacturing systems

参考译名:大数据分析架构设计——制造系统中的应用

简介:Context The rapid prevalence and potential impact of big data analytics platforms have sparked an interest amongst different practitioners and academia. Manufacturing organisations are particularly well suited to benefit from data analytics platforms in their entire product lifecycle management for intelligent information processing, performing manufacturing activities, and creating value chains. This needs a systematic re-architecting approach incorportaitng careful and thorough evaluation of goals for integrating manufacturing legacy information systems with data analytics platforms. Furthermore, ameliorating the uncertainty of the impact the new big data architecture on system quality goals is needed to avoid cost blowout in implementation and testing phases.

来源:Computers & Industrial Engineering》年:2019,128 948963 总页数:16ISSN0360-8352

链接:http://pan.ckcest.cn/rcservice//doc?doc_id=37603

 

类型:期刊

标题:A review of diagnostic and prognostic capabilities and best practices for manufacturing

参考译名:制造业诊断预测能力及最佳实践回顾

简介:Prognostics and health management (PHM) technologies reduce time and costs for maintenance of products or processes through efficient and cost-effective diagnostic and prognostic activities. PHM systems use real-time and historical state information of subsystems and components to provide actionable information, enabling intelligent decision-making for improved performance, safety, reliability, and maintainability. However, PHM is still an emerging field, and much of the published work has been either too exploratory or too limited in scope. Future smart manufacturing systems will require PHM capabilities that overcome current challenges, while meeting future needs based on best practices, for implementation of diagnostics and prognostics. This paper reviews the challenges, needs, methods, and best practices for PHM within manufacturing systems. This includes PHM system development of numerous areas highlighted by diagnostics, prognostics, dependability analysis, data management, and business. Based on current capabilities, PHM systems are shown to benefit from open-system architectures, cost-benefit analyses, method verification and validation, and standards.

来源:出处:《Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing》年:2019,30(1) 7995 总页数:17

ISSN0956-5515

链接:http://pan.ckcest.cn/rcservice//doc?doc_id=37606

 

数字化设计与制造

类型:资讯

标题:An Intro into Generative Design

参考译名:生成式设计介绍

简介:Humans are capable of great things when it comes to design. But nature, many would agree, is the greatest designer of all. Evolution has, over billions of years, perfected the animal and plant species that populate the planet, discarding less than optimal designs in favor of those that can survive and thrive.What if evolutionary design could be mimicked using science-based methods? And what if that process could be sped up to be completed in minutes and seconds instead of years or eons? This has become possible thanks to generative design, which uses machine learning to circumvent the evolutionary approach and cut right to the optimal form.

来源:Rani Richardson, Subham Sett | Apr 18, 2019 IW

链接:https://www.industryweek.com/technology-and-iiot/intro-generative-design

 

类型:资讯

标题:4 Misconceptions Manufacturers Have About Digitization

参考译名:制造商对数字化制造的4个误区

简介:The manufacturing industry has long been one that is content with a satisfactory status quo. There is a defined way of operating within the supply chain that has performed well enough, for the time being, leading many manufacturers to deem digitization unnecessary.

With product lifecycles getting shorter and competition tightening among industries (even among players within the supply chain), manufacturers can’t leave well enough alone for much longer. Nonetheless, many are choosing complacency over improvement, in part due to a handful of widespread myths about what it means to embrace digitization, how manufacturers can benefit, and whether the cost-benefit scales tip in manufacturers’ favor.

来源:美国制造业网M.NET  2019/04/17

链接:https://www.manufacturing.net/article/2019/04/4-misconceptions-manufacturers-have-about-digitization

 

工业机器人

类型:资讯

标题:Is the Supply Chain Ready for Robots?

参考译名:供应链为机器人做好准备了吗?

简介:Supply chain automation as a strategy to keep up with consumer demand and reduce costs is no new concept.  What is new, however, is the accessibility of the latest generation of robotics and automation solutions.  Currently, 72 percent of enterprises use robotic automation, and usage is on the rise, accelerating deployment of intelligent machines across manufacturing, warehousing and distribution to a record pace.The ripple effect is a host of new opportunities and challenges for supply chain organizations, the most critical of which is securing the skills required and changing the way people work in a more digitized industrial environment.

来源:manufacturing.net 2019.4

链接:https://www.manufacturing.net/news/2019/04/supply-chain-ready-robots

 

 汽车工程

类型:资讯

标题:Could Automated Vehicles Be a Friend of the Healthcare Industry?

参考译名:自动化汽车能成为医疗行业的朋友吗?

简介:With current improvements in vehicle automation and artificial intelligence (AI), connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) will be an important part of the future urban transportation. Various industries, along with public agencies, universities, and others, have already started exploring the potential applications and benefits of these technologies. The healthcare industry is one of the industries that could benefit from CAV technologies. More specifically, the human factor in the automated vehicle system—either as a driver in the very early stages of the technology or as passengers in the fully automated vehicles—creates a critical opportunity for the healthcare industry to become active in the discussions around CAVs.

来源:Zahra BahraniFard | Apr 17, 2019 IW

链接:https://www.industryweek.com/technology-and-iiot/could-automated-vehicles-be-friend-healthcare-industry

 

类型:资讯

标题:Daimler Places Bet on Next-Generation Battery Startup

参考译名:戴姆勒在下一代电池初创企业上下注

简介:As it pushes to electrify its fleet, German automaker Daimler AG has invested in a startup that says it can boost battery performance by at least 20%.

Daimler led a $170 million financing round for Sila Nanotechnologies Inc., a San Francisco Bay Area startup that makes silicon-based anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, according to a statement on April 16.The startup has raised $295 million to date.

来源:Bloomberg | Apr 16, 2019 IW

链接:https://www.industryweek.com/companies-executives/daimler-places-bet-next-generation-battery-startup

 

类型:期刊

标题:Design, Analysis, and Optimization of a Multi-Speed Powertrain for Class-7 Electric Trucks

参考译名: 7级电动卡车多速动力总成的设计、分析与优化

简介:The development, analysis, and optimization of battery electric class-7 heavy-duty trucks equipped with multi-speed transmissions are discussed in this article. The designs of five new traction motors-fractional-slot, concentrated winding machines-are proposed for use in heavy-duty electric trucks. The procedure for gear-ratio range selection is outlined and ranges of gear ratios for three-to six-speed transmission powertrains are calculated for each of the proposed electric traction motors. The simulation and gear-ratio optimization tasks for class-7 battery electric trucks are formulated. The energy consumption of the e-truck with the twenty possible powertrain combinations is minimized over the four driving cycles and the most efficient powertrain layouts that meet the performance criteria are recommended.

来源:刊名《SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains  年:2018,7(1) 2742 总页数:16

链接:http://pan.ckcest.cn/rcservice//doc?doc_id=37618

 

3D打印、增材制造、生物制造

类型:资讯

标题:GE Research uses 3D printing to design Ultra Performance Heat Exchanger

参考译名:GE Research采用3D打印技术设计超性能换热器

简介:GE Research is leading a $2.5 MM project through the Advanced Research Projects Agency’s (ARPA-E) High Intensity Thermal Exchange through Materials and Manufacturing Processes program (HITEMMP) to develop a high temperature, high pressure and super-compact heat exchanger enabled by additive manufacturing technology.

来源:Apr 16, 2019  http://www.3ders.org/

链接:http://www.3ders.org/articles/20190416-ge-research-uses-3d-printing-to-design-ultra-performance-heat-exchanger.html

 

类型:资讯

标题:Audi is increasingly using polymer 3D printing in automotive production

参考译名:奥迪在汽车生产中越来越多地使用聚合物3D打印技术

简介:German automobile manufacturer Audi AG is expanding the use of 3D printers in production. Custom-designed and locally printed auxiliary tools from the 3D printer help employees on the production lines. A separate department will be responsible for implementation at the Neckarsulm site in the future.

来源:Apr 10, 2019  http://www.3ders.org/

链接:http://www.3ders.org/articles/20190410-audi-is-increasingly-using-polymer-3d-printing-in-automotive-production.html

 

类型:资讯

标题:Tel Aviv University scientists 3D print a tiny live heart using patient's own cells

参考译名:特拉维夫大学的科学家使用患者自己的细胞3D打印一颗微小的活体心脏

简介:For the first time ever Israeli scientists have created a vascularized human heart that combines human tissue taken from a patient, using a 3D printer.

On Monday, a team of Tel Aviv University researchers revealed the 3D printed heart that completely matches the immunological, cellular, biochemical and anatomical properties of a human patient. Until now, scientists have been successful in printing only simple tissues without blood vessels.

This is the first time anyone anywhere has successfully engineered and printed an entire heart replete with cells, blood vessels, ventricles and chambers,” said Prof. Tal Dvir of TAU’s School of Molecular Cell Biology and Biotechnology, who led the research for the study. He was assisted by Nadav Noor, Dr. Assaf Shapira, Reuven Edri, Idan Gal and Lior Wertheim.

The process involved taking a biopsy of fatty tissue from patients, after which the cellular and a-cellular materials were then separated. While the cells were reprogrammed to become pluripotent stem cells and efficiently differentiated to cardiac or endothelial cells, the extracellular matrix (ECM), a three-dimensional network of extracellular macromolecules, such as collagen and glycoproteins, were processed into a personalized hydrogel that served as the printing “ink.”

The differentiated cells were then mixed with the bio-inks and were used to 3D-print patient-specific, immune-compatible cardiac patches with blood vessels and, subsequently, an entire heart. The 3D printing process takes around 3-4 hours.

来源:Apr 15, 2019  http://www.3ders.org/

链接:http://www.3ders.org/articles/20190415-tel-aviv-university-scientists-3d-print-a-tiny-live-heart-using-patients-own-cells.html

 

工业互联网

类型:咨询报告

标题:工业互联网标准体系(2.0

简介:工业互联网作为新一代信息技术与制造业深度融合的产物,日益成为新工业革命的关键支撑和深化“互联网+先进制造业”的重要基石,对未来工业发展产生全方位、深层次、革命性影响。“工业互联网、标准先行”,标准化工作是实现工业互联网的重要技术基础。 为指导当前和未来一段时间工业互联网标准化工作,解决标准缺失、滞后、交叉重复等问题,落实国务院“关于深化’互联网+先进制造业’发展工业互联网的指导意见”,由工业和信息化部指导,在紧密结合《工业互联网标准体系框架(版本1.0)》、全面总结工业互联网标准化需求基础上,工业互联网产业联盟(以下简称“联盟”)组织撰写《工业互联网标准体系(版本2.0)》,修订了工业互联网标准体系框架及重点标准化方向,梳理了已有工业互联网标准及未来要制定的联盟标准,形成统一、综合、开放的工业互联网标准体系。 工业互联网是一个长期发展和演进的过程,联盟将根据国内外工业互联网的发展情况,持续推进标准化需求研究,广泛吸纳产业界的反馈意见,适时修订和发布报告新版。

来源:中国信通院

链接:http://pan.ckcest.cn/rcservice//doc?doc_id=37553

 

类型:资讯

标题:How Manufacturers Can Address the Hidden IIoT Costs

参考译名:制造商如何解决隐藏的IIoT成本

简介:When corporations began large-scale adoption of newly available cell phone technology two decades ago, there were more than a few missteps. Security, roaming, overages and maintenance were still unknown variables. IT teams would often receive a big surprise in the form of a large unaccounted-for data bill, making it difficult for IT teams to plan and budget for employees’ real-world needs. Over time, IT teams learned how to successfully support and manage cell phone programs, and today, it’s an ordinary competency largely devoid of budgeting surprises.

来源:Dylan Tack | Apr 12, 2019

链接:https://www.industryweek.com/technology-and-iiot/how-manufacturers-can-address-hidden-iiot-costs

 

类型:资讯

标题:Industry Overview: Connectivity is Growing, But Remains ‘Fragmented’

参考译名:产业概况:互联互通正在发展,但仍处于“碎片化”状态

简介:A recent report from ABI Research, presented this year at Hannover Messe, shows the major changes in industrial trends through 2018. Here are the key takeaways:

?The marketplace is still focused on step one of connection—bringing assets online and retrieving data—not the second step, analyzing that data and using it to make decisions.

?As often happens, automotive technology is moving into the industrial space, acting as a “lighthouse segment” for digital platforms. Technology utilized in automotive is trickling down to tier 1 and 2 providers.

?5G and LTE are considered more beneficial than wireless, but 5G is among the many technology solutions which are in beginning stages rather than anywhere near practical use.

?Customers are torn over whether cloud or edge computing are effective for mission critical data, but it is slowly becoming more trusted and integrated.

来源:manufacturing.net 2019.4

链接:https://www.manufacturing.net/data-focus/2019/04/industry-overview-connectivity-growing-remains-fragmented

 

类型:期刊

标题:The significance of industrial networking for the IIoT

参考译名:工业(产业)网络对工业物联网至关重要

简介:The Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC) focuses on the role of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) in industrial networking. Industrial networking connects devices and systems and is critical to the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). Application and deployment considerations--along with existing and emerging technology options--adds complexity to network planning and technology selection according to the Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC) white paper "Industrial Networking Enabling IIoT Communication."

来源:刊名《Control engineering: Covering control, instrumentation, and automation systems worldwide》年:2019,66(1) 14~ 总页数:1 语种:英语 分类号:TP ISSN0010-8049

链接:http://pan.ckcest.cn/rcservice//doc?doc_id=37616

 

类型:资讯

标题:Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT): an opportunity that manufacturers cannot ignore

参考译名: 工业互联网:制造商不可忽视的机会

简介:By 2023, the Internet of Things (IoT) will be made up of 625mn connected devices in the UK alone. From voice assistants like Amazon and Siri that can turn your coffee machine on while you take a shower, to smart fridges that can cleverly detect if you’re running low on milk, consumers today are exposed to a vast-array of technologies, and this is striking a new connection between brands and consumers. However, the pervasiveness of connected machines is not just prevalent in the home. Businesses too can leverage IoT, particularly Industrial IoT (IIoT) devices, to help drive greater efficiencies, increase competitiveness and develop new business models. Many manufacturers are already using IIoT to get a holistic view of their operations, but there is a huge opportunity to use these sensors for commerce that is often overlooked or missed.

来源:全球制造业杂志  2019/04/12

链接:https://www.manufacturingglobal.com/technology/industrial-internet-things-iiot-opportunity-manufacturers-cannot-ignore

 

综合情报

类型:资讯

标题:苹果与高通的世纪大战宣布和解,华为表示压力很大

简介:美东时间416日下午255分左右,苹果和高通决定和解专利使用费的纠纷。两家公司联合发布的声明称已经达成协议,放弃在全球层面的所有法律诉讼。双方这场持续2年多的专利纠纷至此画上句号。

据外媒报道,两家公司已经达成了为期六年的全球专利许可协议,已在201941日生效,并有两年的延期选项。苹果将向高通支付一笔一次性的款项,两家公司还达成了一份多年的芯片组供应协议,但上述具体金额并没透露。

来源:凤凰网科技《风眼》深度报道组 20190417

链接:https://tech.ifeng.com/c/7lwPX88J4YC 

 

类型:期刊

标题:Enablers of sustainable industrial ecosystem: framework and future research directions

参考译名:可持续产业生态系统的推动者:框架与未来研究方向

简介:Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to dig out enablers of sustainable industrial ecosystem to develop a framework. Design/methodology/approach - To test the framework statistically, a structured questionnaire was designed. Measures for the questionnaire were adopted from an extensive literature review. Further, the questionnaire was pretested and further pilot study was conducted. Adding to this, the reliability and validity of the constructs was examined using confirmatory factor analysis followed by covariance-based structural equation modeling to test research hypotheses. Findings - The statistical analyses suggest that the model exceeds the threshold limit for goodness of fit after undergoing through few iterations. Normative pressure has a low effect than rest of the factors. Originality/value - The present study is a unique contribution in terms of its theoretical implications and practical use. Finally, research findings are concluded and further research directions is outlined.

来源:刊名《Management of Environmental Quality》年:2019,30(1) 6186 总页数:26

语种:英语 分类号:X2 ISSN1477-7835

链接:http://pan.ckcest.cn/rcservice//doc?doc_id=37620

 

宇航空间结构、特种机器人

类型:资讯

标题:Latest Cygnus mission to ISS includes new features

参考译名:最新的天鹅座国际空间站任务包括新的功能

简介:WASHINGTON — The next Northrop Grumman Cygnus cargo mission to the International Space Station will demonstrate two new capabilities, one before launch and the other after the spacecraft departs the station.

The Cygnus spacecraft, flying a mission designated NG-11, is scheduled to launch at 4:46 p.m. Eastern April 17 on an Antares rocket from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport at Wallops Island, Virginia. During a pre-launch press conference April 16, officials reported no problems with launch preparations and excellent weather, with a 95 percent chance of acceptable conditions at the scheduled liftoff time.

The Cygnus is carrying more than 3,400 kilograms of cargo on this mission to the station. Of that total, 1,569 kilograms is for a variety of scientific investigations, with 936 kilograms of crew supplies. The remainder is split among vehicle hardware, miscellaneous equipment and a satellite deployer for NanoRacks.

来源:April 16, 2019  https://spacenews.com

链接:https://spacenews.com/newest-cygnus-mission-to-iss-includes-new-features/

 

类型:资讯

标题:Aerojet Rocketdyne proposes using AR1 for medium-class launch vehicle

参考译名:洛克达因公司建议将AR1用于中型运载火箭

简介:COLORADO SPRINGS — Aerojet Rocketdyne says it’s committed to completing development of the AR1 rocket engine and is seeking potential partners for a new medium-class launch vehicle that could use the engine.

Aerojet Rocketdyne received an award from the U.S. Air Force in 2016 to support development of the AR1, one of the engines United Launch Alliance considered for use on its next-generation Vulcan rocket. The original value of the Air Force’s other transaction agreement, or OTA, was $804 million, with the Air Force providing two-thirds the funding and the rest coming from Aerojet and, to a lesser extent, ULA.

来源:April 16, 2019  https://spacenews.com

链接:https://spacenews.com/aerojet-rocketdyne-proposes-using-ar1-for-medium-class-launch-vehicle/

 

类型:资讯

标题:Falcon Heavy center core toppled after landing

参考译名:猎鹰重型火箭的中心核心在着陆后坠海

简介:WASHINGTON — The center core of the Falcon Heavy rocket that launched a communications satellite April 11 fell over after landing in rough seas, but SpaceX said the mishap won’t affect upcoming launches.

In an April 15 statement, SpaceX said that the booster core, one of three on the Falcon Heavy rocket, was unable to remain upright over the weekend because heavy seas prevented crews from securing the booster to the deck of the droneship Of Course I Still Love You in the Atlantic Ocean.

来源:April 15, 2019  https://spacenews.com

链接:https://spacenews.com/falcon-heavy-center-core-toppled-after-landing/

 

动力系统、燃气轮机

类型:会议

标题:Construction Challenges in Future Offshore Wind Developments

参考译名:未来海上风能(发电)开发的建设挑战

简介:Offshore wind is now a well-established technology in Europe with 12,631MW installed capacity from 3,589 grid connected wind turbines in 10 countries. The technology is now expanding in to new markets in North America and the Far East. This growth is being fuelled by the reducing cost of offshore wind generation with the first subsidy free projects now in development in Europe. In these markets offshore wind will be a lower cost and more environmentally friendly means of generating electricity than gas. This cost reduction has been driven by a number of factors but three important ones are discussed here together with a number of lessons learned from recent projects. The wind turbines are steadily getting bigger. Larger turbines mean that fewer need to be installed for a given project size. The average size of a grid connected turbine in 2016 was 4.8MW but the future subsidy free projects will require turbines closer to 15MW. This means larger foundations and heavier turbine components need to be installed. There is a significant degree of standardisation and repetition in the installation of offshore wind. High levels of repetition mean that a greater investment can be made on installation techniques, installation aids and procedures than would normally be seen on a one off project. This in turn places a higher demand on production and installation engineering than experienced on oil and gas projects. The cost of project finance has come down significantly. These projects are very large and most Utilities will no longer finance them off balance sheet. Therefore the bankability of projects is critical to the developer in reaching financial close. Based on recent successful project delivery there is a broad range of investors willing to provide finance. However, the financiers and their technical advisors set the risk levels, contracting strategy and very often the construction methodology. Trends in offshore wind projects and lessons learned from recent projects are discussed.

来源:会议录《Offshore technology conference, vol. 5: Offshore technology conference (OTC 2018), 30 April - 3 May 2018, Houston, Texas, USA》年:2018 31993208 总页数:10 会议:Offshore technology conference 举办地:Houston, TX 语种:英语 ISBN9781510862531

链接:http://pan.ckcest.cn/rcservice//doc?doc_id=37619

 

薄板制造、现代轧制技术

类型:期刊

标题:Enhancements on strength of body structure due to bake hardening effect on hot stamping steel

参考译名:利用对热冲压钢的烘烤硬化作用,提高了车身结构的强度

简介:Body structure projects are designed to develop lightweight structures, which result in low fuel consumption and emissions for internal combustion engines and longer battery life in the case of electric vehicles. The structures need to be lightweight but also strong in order to provide maximum safety to the occupants. These premises have led to the development of special materials such as the hot stamping steels. The most used steel in this process, quenched 22MnB5, also exhibits the bake hardening effect: its yield stress increases after being exposed at temperatures close to 200 degrees C (typical heat treatment of paint lines in the automotive industry). The aim of this study was to verify the improvement in the mechanical strength of a body structure due to the bake hardening effect to which the hot-stamped steel components were submitted. Samples of annealed 22MnB5 steel were submitted to tensile and chemical analysis. A second group of the same steel was subjected to an additional heat treatment in a laboratory furnace simulating the heating that occurs in the body paint line. Subsequently, the same tests were performed with the samples from the first group. Tensile tests evidenced the increase of 6.5% in the yield stress of the samples that suffered the bake hardening effect. The stress-strain diagram curves were used as the input to the side crash simulation program. The simulations demonstrated that the body structure whose hot-stamped parts were subjected the bake hardening effect had a 2% reduction in side crash intrusion compared to body structure where the parts did not suffer this effect. In the case of the lateral protection bar test, the bake hardening effect provided a 5% increase in the maximum bending load.

来源:刊名《The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology》年:2019,100(1/4) 771782 总页数:12 语种:英语 分类号:TP23 ISSN0268-3768

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