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《先进制造信息参考》第46期


2019/3/25 15:49:31

工业4.0与智能制造

类型:咨询报告

标题:工业4.0悖论--克服数字化转型道路上的脱节

简介:虽然,当今世界几乎每个组织都在进行数字化转型,但其战略、供应链转型、人才准备以及投资驱动等方面仍然存在悖论。报告揭示了各公司对未来投资的热情和雄心勃勃的计划,以及公司的计划和行动之间所存在的一系列脱节现象。德勤对来自11个国家的361名高管进行调查,以了解公司如何投资于工业4.0实现数字化转型。报告揭示了各公司对未来投资的热情和雄心勃勃的计划,以及公司的计划和行动之间所存在的一系列脱节现象。

核心观点/主要成果

数字化转型不可能凭空发生,它的终极目标也不单单局限于新技术的实施和运作。相反,真正的数字化转型通常会对企业的战略、人才、商业模式乃至组织方式产生深远影响。

战略悖论。几乎所有受访者(94%)都表示数字化转型是其组织的首要战略目标。然而,尽管受访者似乎明白数字化转型的战略重要性,但这并不一定意味着他们正在充分探索数字化转型所带来的战略可能性。事实上,68%的受访者将其视为盈利的途径。

供应链悖论。高管们认为供应链是当前和未来数字转型投资的首要领域,这表明供应链计划是重中之重。然而,供应链高管和指导日常实际业务运营的非首席高管人员——即那些对实施数字技术最有感触的人,在数字转型投资决策方面似乎没有发言权。

人才悖论。85%高管们表示他们确信企业本身具备合适的人才支持数字化转型,但似乎也承认这确实是一大令人头疼的难题。实际上,只有15%的受访者表示他们需要大幅改变人员组成和技能。 然而,与此同时,高管们指出,寻找、培训和留住合适的人才是他们面临的最大的组织和文化挑战。

创新悖论。高管们表示,他们的数字化转型计划主要是由生产力和运营目标驱动的 - 本质上,利用先进技术主要是为了提高效率。在近期的业务运营中,先进技术的采用变得越来越广泛,但这并不意味着真正的变革机会,至少在最初阶段如此。受其他因素驱动的组织,例如对创新的渴望和对内部战略关注度的增加,收获了同样积极的投资回报。

来源:德勤  www2.deloitte.com

链接:http://pan.ckcest.cn/rcservice//doc?doc_id=36102

 

类型:会议

标题:Manufacturing in Times of Digital Business and Industry 4.0 - The Industrial Internet of Things Not Only Changes the World of Manufacturing

参考译名:数字商业和工业4.0时代下的制造业——工业物联网不仅改变了制造业的世界

简介:Digital business and Industry 4.0 have already significantly changed the world of manufacturing. Data related to the machines as well as process data from the manufacturing lines serve to install powerful applications and services within the entire manufacturing ecosystem. The article provides an overview on several methods used in the manufacturing with respect to process efficiency and reliability as well as quality management. Methods used today often have been designed many years ago but due to increasing computer power and IT capabilities at reasonable costs they evolve as success factor in digital business.

来源:会议录:《Advances in Manufacturing Engineering and Materials: Proceedings of the International Conference on Manufacturing Engineering and Materials (ICMEM 2018), 1822 June, 2018, Novy Smokovec, Slovakia 年:2019 1117 总页数:7会议:International Conference on Manufacturing Engineering and Materials  日期:2018-06-18

语种:英语 分类号:TB3-53 ISBN9783319993522

链接:http://pan.ckcest.cn/rcservice//doc?doc_id=36298

 

数字化设计与制造

类型:期刊

标题:Automated green innovation for computerized numerical-controlled machining design

参考译名:计算机数控加工设计的自动化绿色创新

简介:With the development of manufacturing technology and strict international environmental regulations, green productionhas become an imperative research topic in the manufacturing industry. Because cutting is affected by several factors,the development of green processes is vital for automated cutting using machines. These factors are often subjective andare set up merely based on the manual and experience of engineers, reducing tool life and deteriorating tool precision;ultimately, this approach increases production costs and reduces production efficiency. Moreover, the ecological environment can be seriously affected. Furthermore, the parameters must be adjusted according to variations in the processingstate, which is a considerable drawback for the automated cutting industry. In this study, we investigated the precisioncomputerized numerical-controlled cutting process as an example. We first assessed the literature and investigated toolwear and cutting noise as quality standards for green computerized numerical-controlled cutting. The cutting depth, cutting speed, feed rate, and the tip of the center were selected as control parameters. The consistency of the results wasverified through an expert questionnaire conducted using analytic hierarchy process, and the weighted values of the control parameters were obtained. Simultaneously, seven environmental efficiency elements of the World Business Councilfor Sustainable Development and TRIZ 39 engineering parameters of the CSI project were used to establish the engineering parameters for the green production design. Furthermore, 40 inventive principles from a contradiction matrixwere used to design an optimization strategy to develop and verify an innovation strategy of singular quality. Finally, theexperimental results revealed that implementing the analytic hierarchy process coupled with the TRIZ innovative thinking mode and green production concept enables enterprises to reduce their consumption of raw materials and wasteproduction during the design process. This approach effectively reduces the burden on the environment and thus facilitates industry competitiveness and sustainability.

来源:【刊名】:Advances in Mechanical EngineeringISSN】:1687-8132【出版信息】:2018 Vol.10 No.7

链接:http://pan.ckcest.cn/rcservice//doc?doc_id=36307

 

类型:期刊

标题:Discomfort Analysis in Computerized Numeric Control Machine Operations

参考译名:计算机数控机床操作中的不适分析

简介:Objectives: The introduction of computerized numeric control (CNC) technology in manufacturing industries has revolutionized the production process, but there are some health and safety problems associated with these machines. The present study aimed to investigate the extent of postural discomfort in CNC machine operators, and the relationship of this discomfort to the display and control panel height, with a view to validate the anthropometric recommendation for the location of the display and control panel in CNC machines.Methods: The postural discomforts associated with CNC machines were studied in 122 male operators using Corlett and Bishop's body part discomfort mapping, subject information, and discomfort level at various time intervals from starting to end of a shift. This information was collected using a questionnaire. Statistical analysis was carried out using ANOVAResults: Neck discomfort due to the positioning of the machine displays, and shoulder and arm discomfort due to the positioning of controls were identified as common health issues in the operators of these machines. The study revealed that 45.9% of machine operators reported discomfort in the lower back, 41.8% in the neck, 22.1% in the upper-back, 53.3% in the shoulder and arm, and 21.3% of the operators reported discomfort in the leg.Conclusion: Discomfort increased with the progress of the day and was highest at the end of a shift; subject age had no effect on patient tendency to experience discomfort levels.

来源:【刊名】:Safety and Health at WorkISSN】:2093-7911EISSN】:2093-7997【出版信息】:2012 Vol.3 No.2

链接:http://pan.ckcest.cn/rcservice//doc?doc_id=36306

 

类型:期刊

标题:Analysis and Design of Computerized Numerical Controls for Execution on Multi-core Systems

参考译名:多核系统计算机数控系统的执行分析与设计

简介:Multi-core processors offer a performance increment compared to single-core platforms. This leap in performance is desired to be ported to computerized numerical controls. However, in order to profit of the benefits multi-core processors can bring, the software has to be tailored to real parallel execution. In this paper a concept is proposed for partitioning numerical control software functions for being concurrently executed on multi-core systems. Specifically, the interpreter and the cutter radius compensation modules have been analyzed for devising a feasible parallel architecture. The parser algorithm has been implemented following the proposed scheme in a thread-based approach. Experiments were conducted under a real time Linux kernel extension utilizing the PREEMPT_RT patch. The results were compared against its serial version in terms of execution times to validate the concept.

来源:【刊名】:Procedia CIRPISSN】:2212-8271【语种】:eng【出版信息】:2016 Vol.41

链接:http://pan.ckcest.cn/rcservice//doc?doc_id=36305

 

薄板制造、现代轧制技术

类型:期刊

标题:High precision shape model and presetting strategy for strip hot rolling

参考译名:高精度板带热轧成形模型及预置策略

简介:The effect of stress release on the shape and deformation of strip between stands are rarely considered or quantified in the traditional strip shape model. In order to make up this deficiency, a high precision shape model is established by the mechanism of the strip shape forming and the deformation of roll system in this paper. Special concentration is placed on the effect of roll wear, roll thermal expansion, metal transverse flow and stress release on the shape. In addition, a tolerance factor which is used to describe the attenuation and tolerance abilities of each stand for longitudinal strain difference is proposed as a foundation for a presetting strategy. Compared to the traditional presetting strategies using the empirical coefficient or Shohet theory, the presetting strategy on the basis of the tolerance factor can better play the control ability of each stand. A systematical description of the presetting strategy and the modeling process of the high precision shape model is given in the present study. The calculated results agree well with experiments, and the actual production data show that the shape model has satisfactory accuracy.

来源:刊名《Journal of Materials Processing Technology》年:2019,265 99111 分类号:TG50; TB3  ISSN0924-0136

链接:http://pan.ckcest.cn/rcservice//doc?doc_id=36300

 

 汽车工程

类型:会议

标题:Research of Required Vehicle System Parameters and Sensor Systems for Autonomous Vehicle Control

参考译名:无人驾驶车辆控制所需车辆系统参数和传感器系统的研究

简介:Our long-term goal is to implement autonomous vehicle control functions on a standard vehicle. At first we started with the investigation of the steering, which is a crucial area of the control of autonomous vehicles. As a part of the program, vehicle dynamical measurements were carried out on a Nissan Leaf electric vehicle equipped with a sensor system, furthermore we design a high-level trajectory-tracking controller.

来源:会议录《2018 IEEE 12th International Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence and Informatics: IEEE 12th International Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence and Informatics (SACI), 17-19 May 2018, Timisoara, Romania  年:2018 2732 总页数:6  会议:IEEE International Symposium on Applied Computational Intelligence and Informatics  举办地:Timisoara 日期:2018-05-17 届次:12th  ISBN9781538646410

链接:http://pan.ckcest.cn/rcservice//doc?doc_id=36299

 

类型:咨询报告

标题:European vehicle market statistics, 2018/2019

参考译名:欧洲汽车市场统计手册,2018/2019

简介:The European vehicle market statistics pocketbook offers a statistical portrait of passenger car and light commercial vehicle fleets in the European Union, updated annually. The emphasis is on vehicle technologies and emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants. Brief introductions to each chapter note important trends and provide selected comparisons to other large vehicle markets.

来源:ICCT 2018.12.05

链接:http://pan.ckcest.cn/rcservice//doc?doc_id=36304

 

类型:资讯

标题:Tesla Claims Former Employee Handed Autopilot Intellectual Property to Chinese Startup

参考译名:特斯拉声称,该公司前员工将自动驾驶仪的知识产权交给了中国初创企业

简介:In a case filed in the United States District Court in California on Tuesday, Tesla alleges that a former employee delivered stolen information about self-driving vehicle technology to Chinese electric car company XiaopengMotors.The intellectual property is worth hundreds of millions of dollars according to Tesla, CNN reported.Former employee Guangzhi Cao worked as a Tesla engineer until early January before accepting a job offer from Xiaopeng. He joined Xiaopeng’s U.S. subsidiary, XMotors. He is alleged to have taken complete copies of the source code for Tesla’s self-driving feature and stored them on his personal Apple iCloud account, including 300,000 files and directories.

来源:Manufacturing.Net

链接:https://www.manufacturing.net/news/2019/03/tesla-claims-former-employee-handed-autopilot-intellectual-property-chinese-startup

 

3D打印、增材制造、生物制造

类型:资讯

标题:BU researchers 3D print 'acoustic metamaterial' that cancels sound without blocking airflow

参考译名:波士顿大学的研究人员3D打印出“声学超材料”,这种材料可以在不阻塞气流的情况下消除声音

简介:A team of mechanical engineers at Boston University say that it is possible to silence noise using an open, ringlike structure, created to mathematically perfect specifications, for cutting out sounds while maintaining airflow. They have developed a new device that is specially designed to block up to 94 percent of incoming sound waves, while still letting air pass through.

来源:Mar 13, 2019  www.3ders.org/

链接:http://www.3ders.org/articles/20190313-bu-researchers-3d-print-acoustic-metamaterial-that-cancels-sound-without-blocking-airflow.html

 

类型:资讯

标题:New research uses different wavelengths of light to 3D print with multiple materials

参考译名:新研究:使用不同波长的光来3D打印多种材料

简介:Although 3D printing is being used for a variety of applications in healthcare, biomedical engineering and manufacturing, it is still pretty limited, partly because most 3D printing techniques can only make parts made of one material at a time. Now scientists at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have developed a novel 3D printer that uses patterns of visible and ultraviolet light to 3D print with more than one material.

Currently most multi material 3D printing methods use separate reservoirs of materials to get different materials in the right positions. Researchers found that a one-vat, multiple-component approach, which is similar to a chemist's one-pot approach when synthesizing molecules would be more practical than multiple reservoirs with different materials.

来源:Mar 14, 2019  www.3ders.org/

链接:http://www.3ders.org/articles/20190314-new-research-uses-different-wavelengths-of-light-to-3d-print-with-multiple-materials.html

 

类型:资讯

标题:RIT researcher creates 3D printed bio-polymer structure to help body heal itself

参考译名:RIT研究人员创造3D打印生物聚合物结构,帮助身体自我修复

简介:3D printing are providing a way for an RIT researcher to create platforms to help regenerate human tissue that allows the body heal itself more effectively. Iris Rivero, an engineering professor at Rochester Institute of Technology, has found that compatible combinations of polymers and biomaterials can be successfully used to fabricate “scaffolds,” 3D printed structures that can be used to grow new and healthy tissue. This research moves a step closer to the possibility of “smart,” 3D-printed bone, skin and cartilage tissue replacement.

来源:Mar 7, 2019  www.3ders.org/

链接:http://www.3ders.org/articles/20190307-rit-researcher-creates-3d-printed-bio-polymer-structure-to-help-body-heal-itself.html

 

类型:资讯

标题:3Diligent produces 140 3D printed components for Seattle's second tallest tower

参考译名:3Diligent为西雅图第二高楼生产1403D打印组件

简介:Californian digital manufacturing service provider 3Diligent has 3D printed 140 unique exterior curtain wall nodes for the Rainier Square Tower which is currently under construction in Seattle.

Rainier Square Tower is a mixed-use skyscraper in the Metropolitan Tract of Downtown Seattle. The 850-foot (260 m) tall, 58-story tower will be the second-tallest building in Seattle upon completion. The $600 million project is scheduled to be completed by 2020, and will be the tallest building constructed in the city since 1985.

来源:Mar 7, 2019  www.3ders.org/

链接:http://www.3ders.org/articles/20190307-3diligent-produces-140-3d-printed-components-for-seattles-second-tallest-tower.html

 

类型:资讯

标题:Bugatti unveils Baby II, a €30K EV with 3D printed Type 35 body

参考译名:布加迪推出Baby II,一款价值3万欧元的电动汽车,带有3D打印的35型车身

简介:For its 110th birthday, French car manufacturer Bugatti is digging up the Bugatti Type 35, the company's famous racing car also called the Bugatti Baby, and giving it a modern makeover.

In 1926 Ettore Bugatti and his son Jean decided to build a half-scale Type 35 for Ettore’s youngest son, Roland, on the occasion of his fourth birthday. The car became so popular that the Bugatti Baby became one of the first limited edition miniature cars in history. To celebrate the company’s 110th anniversary Bugatti revealed a 3D printed design model at the 2019 Geneva Motor Show on Monday. Unlike the original, which was only suitable for the youngest drivers, the baby II is an electric 3/4-scale tribute to the type 35, so adults can drive it too.

来源:Mar 12, 2019  www.3ders.org/

链接:http://www.3ders.org/articles/20190312-bugatti-unveils-baby-ii-a-30k-ev-with-3d-printed-type-35-body.html

 

类型:资讯

标题:Markforged accelerates industrial 3D printing ambitions in a new $82mn funding round

参考译名:markforge新一轮融资8200万美元,加速发展批量3D打印

简介:Markforged, a leading manufacturer of industrial 3D printers, has closed another round of funding. The Series D, $82mn funding round, led by Summit Partners, were joined by existing strategic and financial partners, such as Matrix Partners; M12, Microsoft’s Venture Fund; Next47; and Porsche SE.

Markforged has revealed that it will use the additional capital to help accelerate its product roadmap, including the introduction of mass production printers and new materials. The capital will also be used to enhance the company’s global expansion plans, strengthen its massive foothold among global manufacturers, and ultimately help to reshape the $12trn manufacturing industry. The global manufacturing industry sits on the cusp of its fourth industrial revolution. Additive Manufacturing is set to play a meaningful role, driving measurable cost reductions and reshaping traditional manufacturing processes into more efficient, digital production lines.

来源:Engineers Journal  2019/03/20

链接:https://www.manufacturingglobal.com/leadership/markforged-accelerates-industrial-3d-printing-ambitions-new-82mn-funding-round

 

类型:资讯

标题:Desktop Metal: embracing innovation with 3D printing

参考译名:Desktop Metal: 积极迎接3D打印的创新

简介:Widely regarded as the next industrial revolution, industry 4.0 and digitalisation are providing the opportunity for unprecedented levels of connectivity between systems at all levels of our operations. This brings with it the potential to unlock whole new levels of productivity on our facilities. So how do process operators introduce digital monitoring, analysis and control? Mark Kelly, head of digital and innovation at Bilfinger UK, explains.

来源:全球制造业杂志  2019/03/13

链接:https://www.manufacturingglobal.com/technology/desktop-metal-embracing-innovation-3d-printing

 

类型:资讯

标题:4D-Printed Materials Can Be Stiff as Wood or Soft as Sponge

参考译名:4d打印材料可以像木头一样硬,也可以像海绵一样软

简介:Rutgers University-New Brunswick engineers have created flexible, lightweight materials with 4D printing that could lead to better shock absorption, morphing airplane or drone wings, soft robotics and tiny implantable biomedical devices. Their research is published in the journal Materials Horizons.3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, turns digital blueprints to physical objects by building them layer by layer. 4D printing is based on this technology, with one big difference: it uses special materials and sophisticated designs to print objects that change shape with environmental conditions such as temperature acting as a trigger, said senior author Howon Lee, an assistant professor in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. Time is the fourth dimension that allows them to morph into a new shape.

来源:Manufacturing.Net

链接:https://www.manufacturing.net/videos/2019/03/4d-printed-materials-can-be-stiff-wood-or-soft-sponge

 

综合情报

类型:资讯

标题:DARPA continues work on satellite servicing program as it seeks new ride

参考译名:美国国防部高级研究计划局继续进行卫星服务项目的工作,以寻求新的旅程

简介:CAMBRIDGE, Mass. — Nearly two months after Maxar dropped out of a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency program to demonstrate satellite servicing, the agency is continuing to develop the servicing technology as it examines options to get it into space.

来源:March 17, 2019  https://spacenews.com

链接:https://spacenews.com/darpa-continues-work-on-satellite-servicing-program-as-it-seeks-new-ride/

 

类型:资讯

标题:Almost Ready: SpaceX has work to do before Dragon is ready to carry crew

参考译名:准备就绪:在Dragon号准备搭载机组人员之前,SpaceX还有工作要做

简介:Among the thousands of spectators who watched the Falcon 9 launch of the first Crew Dragon spacecraft from the Kennedy Space Center in the early morning hours of March 2, few had greater interest in the mission than Bob Behnken and Doug Hurley. The two veteran NASA astronauts, with four shuttle flights between them, have for the last few years been part of the commercial crew program, working with Boeing and SpaceX on the design and operations of their vehicles.

The two were particularly interested in this Demo-1 launch since they will be the crew of the next Crew Dragon mission, Demo-2, scheduled to take place as soon as July. The two followed the launch from a refurbished Apollo-era launch control center at KSC and then, 24 hours later, were at SpaceX’s mission control at its Hawthorne, California, headquarters to watch as the spacecraft approached, and docked with, the International Space Station.

来源:March 21, 2019  https://spacenews.com

链接:https://spacenews.com/crew-dragon-finally-makes-it-to-space-but-theres-work-to-do-before-its-ready-to-carry-crew/

 

类型:咨询报告

标题:March 2019 Manufacturing Business Outlook Survey

参考译名: 20193月美国制造业概览

简介:Manufacturing conditions in the region improved this month, according to firms responding to the March Manufacturing Business Outlook Survey. The indicators for general activity, new orders, and shipments returned to positive territory, while the indicator for employment remained positive. Price pressures also moderated, according to the surveyed firms. Most of the survey’s indexes for future conditions continued to moderate, but the firms remained generally optimistic about growth over the next six months.

来源:美联储 2019/3/22

链接:http://pan.ckcest.cn/rcservice//doc?doc_id=36297

 

类型:资讯

标题:OEMs’ approaches to risk have changed, but at what cost?

参考译名:原始设备制造商应对风险的方式已经改变,但代价是什么?

简介:Production of the Boeing 737 Max 8 airplane is on hold until the cause of the recent crashes is defined and addressed.  At first blush, it appears that the failure lies with autopilot programming and/or electronic sensor failure. Depending on what a formal investigation reveals, the Boeing crashes may be a cautionary tale for Original Equipment Manufacturers. Many OEMs have increased product performance risk through changes in the way they manage their employees and suppliers—by trading risk, rather than mitigating risk.What do I mean by trading vs. mitigating risk? Trading risk involves reducing product cost, maximizing product performance or adding product features at the risk of reducing product reliability and safety.  Mitigating risk implies focusing on reliability and safety first, before considering cost, performance and features.

来源:IW

链接:https://www.industryweek.com/supply-chain/supplier-roulette

 

类型:资讯

标题:Five Ways AR Apps Will Enhance Industrial Work in Next Five Years

参考译名:AR应用程序将在未来五年内以五种方式提升工业工作

简介:The development of apps leveraging AR, VR, and the sum of the two, mixed reality, have the potential to create powerful new industrial solutions. Here are five ways that any company can use to enhance efficiency gains. There is a rightful excitement to augmented reality (AR) apps as the new technology is picking up the pace and getting wider adoption in business solutions. The name "AR" for these applications is somewhat restricted, as most industrial solutions include a mix of AR and its counterpart VR, or virtual reality. In the final outcome for the correct terminology, industries benefit from the mixed reality – the sum of both VR and AR  – as a synonym for a technology that helps us bridge the gap between the physical and the digital worlds, and vice versa.

来源:IW

链接:https://www.industryweek.com/technology-and-iiot/five-ways-ar-apps-will-enhance-industrial-work-next-five-years

 

宇航空间结构、特种机器人

类型:期刊

标题:High Specific Energy Lithium Primary Batteries as Power Sources for Deep Space Exploration

参考译名:高能锂原电池作为深空探测的动力源

简介:Exploration missions to the moons of the outer planets (such as Europa) pose unique challenges regarding the design of the spacecraft power source. Current aerospace qualified primary battery technologies cannot adequately meet the mass and volume requirements of proposed missions. Although they have not been used in prior deep space landed missions, lithium carbon-fluoride (Li/CFx) technologies were identified as a potentially viable option, both with and without blends of manganese dioxide (MnO2). To meet the performance requirements over the intended operating conditions of future NASA missions requires further development of this technology, in particular in the delivery of a high specific energy at moderate to low temperatures, and low discharge rates. A cell development effort was therefore pursued with an industrial battery cell manufacturer. Low (50 mA) and medium (250 mA) discharge rates were used to assess the performance of D-size cells under mission relevant conditions, between 0?C and ?40?C. Select AA-size and C-size cells were also evaluated using similar rates scaled to the lower cell capacities. Developmental Li/CFx-MnO2 D-size cells designed for higher specific energy over these conditions were fabricated and tested, targeting operation between 0 and ?40?C and a 50 mA constant discharge current, as the baseline operating condition.

来源:Published by ECS.    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

链接:http://pan.ckcest.cn/rcservice//doc?doc_id=35402

 

动力系统、燃气轮机

类型:会议

标题:Influence of Different Fuels Physical Properties for Marine Diesel Engine

参考译名:不同替代燃料的物理性能对船用柴油机性能的影响

简介:The physical properties and chemical mechanisms have direct relationship with combustion. The physical properties of different alternative fuels are researched on the effect of performance of marine diesel engine in this paper. The effect of in-cylinder pressure, emission products and the main species are compared. It can provides a direction for the researchers in established the CFD model. The results show that the in-cylinder pressure and temperature have large difference for different alternative fuels. The in-cylinder pressure and temperature are lower for the heavy oil. Due to the worse combustion, the soot mass has maximum value for heavy oil. The C14H30 and O2 mass have higher value at the start of combustion for the heavy oil. It also explains the combustion process of heavy oil.

来源:会议录《9th International Conference on Applied Energy, Part 2 of 6: ICAE 2017 : Cardiff, UK, 21-24 August 2017》年:2018 11591165 总页数:7会议:International Conference on Applied Energy  日期:2017-08-21 届次:9th ISBN9781510857452

链接:http://pan.ckcest.cn/rcservice//doc?doc_id=36301